Sapiens Mitochondrial DNA Genome Circular Long Range Numerical Meta Structures are Highly Correlated with Cancers and Genetic Diseases mtDNA Mutations
Catégories : ADN
IBM emeritus, Martignas Bordeaux metropole, France
- *Corresponding Author:
- Jean-claude Perez
PhD Maths and Computer Science
retired interdisciplinary researcher (IBM emeritus)
7 avenue de terre-rouge F33127 Martignas
Bordeaux metropole, France
Tel: 33 0781181112
E-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Received date: May 19, 2017; Accepted date: June 07, 2017; Published date: June 12, 2017
Citation: Perez JC (2017) Sapiens Mitochondrial DNA Genome Circular Long Range Numerical Meta Structures are Highly Correlated with Cancers and Genetic Diseases mtDNA Mutations. J Cancer Sci Ther 9:512-527. doi: 10.4172/1948-5956.1000469
Copyright: © 2017 Perez JC. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Using the circular nature of the 16k base-pairs human mtDNA genome, we are looking for hypothetical proportions between the C+A and T+G bases. Remarkable proportions are thus discovered, the length of which may be much greater than the length of the genome. We then analyze the impact of evolution on these “numerical resonances” by comparing the referenced mtDNAs of Sapiens, Neanderthal and Denisova. Then, by analyzing 250 characteristic mutations associated with various pathologies, we establish a very strong formal causal correlation between these numerical meta structures and these referenced mutations. To summarize, we should think then research on the following situation: (a) Inputs: 250 cases of mtDNA mutations1 associated with various human diseases. (b) An operator: The exhaustive search for mtDNA genome “Fibonacci resonances” associated with these mutations. (c) A “binary” output: a common behavior of the mtDNA genome resulting from these 250 mutations disorders.
Nearly 30 years ago, when we were just starting to have available genes and small genomes DNA sequences of viruses or bacteria, while the large project of human genome sequencing was just beginning, we showed the existence of specific numerical nucleotides proportions in the DNA of the genes [1,2]. This discovery also applied to small circular genomes such as those of bacteria or mitochondrial DNA genes-rich sequences. On the other hand, it did not work for non-coding DNA sequences regions like human chromosomes.
In the cells, mitochondria are known as the powerhouses of the cell. They are organelles that act like a digestive system which takes in nutrients, then breaks them down, and creates energy rich molecules for the cell. The biochemical processes of the cell are known like a cellular respiration.
The genome of the mitochondria or “mtDNA” is a small 16 kb genome whose remarkable feature is the fact that it is looped back on itself forming a circular sequence. This is also true of the genomes of most bacteria. As in prokaryotes, there is a very high proportion of coding DNA and an absence of repeats. It encodes 37 genes: 13 for subunits of respiratory complexes I, III, IV and V, 22 for mitochondrial tRNA (for the 20 standard amino acids, plus an extra gene for leucine and serine), and 2 for rRNA. One mitochondrion can contain two to ten copies of its DNA.
Mitochondrial genomes have been extensively studied and identified, especially for many years by Douglas C. Wallace [3-5]. This genome possesses the remarkable hereditary characteristic of being transmitted only by the mother , which makes it a privileged tool in the evolution studies of human species. Various heterogeneous genomes copies can be found in the same cell, it is heteroplasmia . It would also appear that the genome of mitochondria and its mutations can play an important role in aging [8,9]. But, above all, simple mutations associated with various diseases (such as LHON) are observed, and somatic mutations are found in cells associated with various diseases such as cancers . Effectvely, it is now emerging that somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are also linked to other complex traits, including neurodegenerative diseases, ageing and cancer.
The method of analysis
Fibonacci and Lucas: The particular proportions that we are looking for here revolve around the numbers of Fibonacci and Lucas: (a) The Fibonacci numbers sequence: 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 610 987 1597 2584 4181 6765 10946 17711 28657 46368 75025 121393 196418 317811 (b) The Lucas numbers sequence: 2 1 3 4 7 11 18 29 47 76 123 199 322 521 843 1364 2207 3571 5778 9349 15127 24476 39603
The specific proportions that we will search will be established as follows:
1. From each base of the circular genome, delimiting a region of length F(i), if in this region we find F(i-1) bases C or A; Then we will say we have discovered a “resonance”.
2. Consequently, this subsequence will also contain F(i-2) bases T+G. For example, from base 10000, we analyse the subsequence of the following 17711 nucleotides (considering the genome looped on itself thus of an “infinite” length).
3. Then, if we find within this sequence exactly 10946 bases C or A, And, consequently, 6765 bases T or G.
4. Then we declare to have discovered a “resonance of length 17711”.
The different genomes analysed: Sapiens mtDNA genome called “Cambridge revised”. It is found in the rCRS is GenBank number NC_012920 (7-11) [11-15]. Neanderthal 1 mtDNA genome . DENISOVA1 and DENISOVA2 mtDNA genomes . (a) DENISOVA1 alias “Denisova” in the original paper: Select item 9529523511. Homo sapiens ssp. Denisova isolate Denisova 8 mitochondrion, complete genome 16,573 bp circular DNA Accession: KT780370.1 GI: 952952351 (b) DENISOVA2 alias “ALTAI” in the original paper: Select item 2926064082. Homo sp. Altai mitochondrion, complete genome 16,570 bp circular DNA Accession: NC_013993.1 GI: 292606408. Chimpanzee mtDNA genome: >X93335.1 Pan troglodytes mitochondrial DNA, complete genome (isolate Jenny) .
The different diseases mutations analysed: A human mitochondrial genome database .
We will present 4 types of progressive results:
Part 1: Evolution considerations comparing 5 humanoids mtDNA genomes.
Part 2: The exhaustive search for circular resonances of type (C + A)/TCAG.
Part 3: The exhaustive search for G/TCAG circular resonances.
Part 4: The search for Fibonacci “Hyper Constraints Super Resonances”.